The EU-Egypt Association Agreement: A Comprehensive Review

The EU-Egypt Association Agreement, also known as the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership Agreement, is a comprehensive accord that aims to promote closer political, economic, and cultural cooperation between the European Union and Egypt. Signed in 2001, the agreement provides the framework for the EU`s relations with Egypt and sets out the guidelines for trade, investment, and development cooperation.

The agreement reinforces the long-standing ties between the EU and Egypt and has played a crucial role in boosting economic growth, increasing trade, and enhancing political dialogue between the two partners. In this article, we will provide a detailed overview of the agreement, its key provisions, and its impact on the EU-Egypt relationship.

The Key Provisions of the EU-Egypt Association Agreement

The EU-Egypt Association Agreement covers various areas, including trade in goods and services, investment, intellectual property, agriculture, fisheries, and energy. It also provides for cooperation in areas such as education, research, culture, and tourism.

1. Trade in Goods: The agreement eliminates tariffs and other trade barriers in most goods traded between the EU and Egypt. It also establishes a joint committee to monitor and address any trade-related issues that may arise.

2. Trade in Services: The agreement enables EU businesses to provide services in Egypt and vice versa. It covers a wide range of services, including financial services, telecommunications, transport, and tourism.

3. Investment: The agreement creates a favorable investment environment by providing protection for EU investors in Egypt and vice versa. It also encourages investment in key sectors, such as energy, infrastructure, and tourism.

4. Intellectual Property: The agreement strengthens the protection of intellectual property rights in both Egypt and the EU. It includes provisions for copyright, patent, and trademark protection, as well as the enforcement of intellectual property laws.

5. Agriculture and Fisheries: The agreement provides for the liberalization of agricultural and fisheries trade between the EU and Egypt. It also establishes a mechanism for cooperation in food safety and animal health.

6. Energy: The agreement encourages cooperation in the energy sector, including the development of renewable energy sources and the promotion of energy efficiency.

The Impact of the EU-Egypt Association Agreement

The EU-Egypt Association Agreement has had a significant impact on the bilateral relationship between the two partners. Some of the key benefits include:

1. Increased Trade: The agreement has led to a significant increase in trade between the EU and Egypt. In 2019, the total trade volume between the two partners amounted to 26.1 billion euros.

2. Boosted Investment: The agreement has created a favorable investment climate, leading to increased foreign direct investment in both directions. In 2019, the EU was the largest foreign investor in Egypt, with a total investment of 7.6 billion euros.

3. Enhanced Political Dialogue: The agreement has facilitated a closer political dialogue between the EU and Egypt. It has provided the framework for regular high-level meetings and consultations on a wide range of issues, including human rights, migration, and regional stability.

4. Improved Socio-Economic Conditions: The agreement has contributed to the improvement of socio-economic conditions in Egypt by promoting economic growth, job creation, and poverty reduction. It has also enabled the transfer of knowledge and expertise in key sectors, such as education and research.


The EU-Egypt Association Agreement is a comprehensive accord that has strengthened the relationship between the EU and Egypt. It has provided the framework for closer political dialogue, increased trade and investment, and enhanced cooperation in various sectors. Despite challenges, such as political instability and economic uncertainty, the agreement remains a vital instrument for promoting stability and prosperity in the Euro-Mediterranean region.